Amphipolis lion monument history
A second, much smaller, monument is likely to be buried at the Casta Hill tomb site in Amfipolis, Greek archaeologists believe.
According to an ANA-MPE news agency report, there is the assumption that there is another tomb, west of the one discovered and buried two meters deep.
A geophysical survey has been carried out by the Laboratory of Applied Geophysics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the laboratory director, Grigoris Tsokas, gave a speech called “How to detect buried antiquities: the secrets of the Casta Hill in Amphipolis” in which he claimed there is a need for further excavation on the site.
“We have a three-dimensional representation and the distribution of resistance shows that there is something there. We guess there is a second monument, far smaller than the one found, that has been found at a depth of about two meters and it should be investigated,” Tsokas said.
The geophysical survey showed there is a buried ravine on the northeast side, which has been covered by a manmade embankment.
“The geophysical study of Casta Hill was commissioned to our workshop in 2014 and the university has funded the research in full. We have already explored the hill and processed the data, which is difficult because of the volume, and have found some additional data. An excavation permit is needed and now we are trying to find the funds to continue.”
More specifically, Tsokas, said, a piece of coal was found in the foundations, indicating that the monument was built around 300 BC, give or take 30 years.
Oct 29, 2016
The mystery occupant of the Amphipolis tomb at Casta Hill that dominated the international media two years ago continues to reveal secrets. New data has revealed that it was not just the famous Lion of Amphipolis that lay on top of the tumulus. Amphipolis Architect Michalis Lefantzis states that the tomb’s exterior was magnanimous in its architectural design and decorated with detailed and complex ornaments.
Following research by the excavation team, parts of the marble items used in the monument have been traced to collections around the world from Europe to America. They were transported in the 19th-century, stripping the monument, and creating a puzzle whose pieces are scattered across the globe. So far, archeologists have found 11 sections of marble statues from the tomb at the Louvre, Museum of Istanbul, and Getty. All these were once decorative items at the Amphipolis tomb.
In front of the two Sphinx statues and the stairs in front of the tomb there may have been other items that, linked together, created a magnanimous monument that worked both as a tomb and symbol of military heroism.
The architectural data of the monument and new data, according to Lafazianis, show that the tomb may originally have been used as a place where heroes were worshipped in honor of a high-ranking Macedonian officer and as an oracle where ritualistic practices were aimed at fortune-telling.
The findings so far seem to lead to the inference that the 60-year-old woman’s body was sealed in a burial chamber with a marble door, transferring worship practices to earlier chambers.
Archaeologists and historians have confirmed that the tomb discovered at the Casta Hill of Amphipolis belongs to the era of Alexander the Great.
A detailed frieze depicting a warrior wearing a distinctive Macedonian harness and the weapons of the dead leading a funeral procession is a clear indication of the era. The discovery was made on Friday, almost 20 moths after unearthing his tomb.
The warrior resembles other depictions of Alexander the Great. The style of the relief matches the estimated date of the monument, which, according to excavation chief Katerina Peristeri, is estimated to belong to the last quarter of the 4th century. The frieze probably comes from the base of the famous Lion statue.
This find links the tomb with Alexander the Great, according to the experts. A few months ago, architect Michalis Lefantzis claimed that the person buried in Amphipolis tomb is Hephaestion, best friend and fellow warrior of Alexander the Great.
Experts confirm Amphipolis tomb is linked to Alexander the Great
Mar, 05 2016
A warrior leading a funeral procession is depicted on the frieze wearing a distinctive Macedonian harness and the weapons of the dead
The first detailed presentation of the frieze, which probably comes from the base of the famous, giant statue of the Lion, was perhaps the most striking revelation made on Friday, regarding the Tomb of Amphipolis. A warrior leading a funeral procession is depicted wearing a distinctive Macedonian harness and the weapons of the dead.
According to the experts, the warrior resembles other depictions of Alexander the Great. This is important mainly because the overall style of the relief is consistent with the dating of the monument which is estimated to be the last quarter of the 4th century, as Katerina Peristeri argued from the first moment.
The presentation of the frieze was made in the framework of the 29th scientific meeting on archaeological excavations in Macedonia and Thrace.
This find confirms the relationship of the Tomb with Alexander the Great, according to the experts. Moreover, a few months ago, architect Michael Lefantzis claimed that the person buried in Amphipolis tomb is Hephaestion, best friend and fellow soldier of Alexander the Great.
Secrets of Amphipolis: Peristeri says the monument still has a lot to offer
Lead archeologist Katerina Peristeri, on a two-day visit to Cyprus, cast the spotlight on more secrets at Amphipolis that have yet to be revealed. The head of excavations in Nicosia since Thursday was a guest of the University of Cyprus. Her speech titled, “Macedonian tomb complex at Casta hill, Amphipolis: Excavations 2012-2014.”
On her first visit aimed at presenting Amphipolis results in Cyprus she said that the tomb still has a lot to give. Thousandnews.gr states that the scanned tomography revealed that the mystery is buried deep in the Macedonian monument. A taste of the new data she has in her possession is to be revealed at the Archeological Conference of Thessaloniki.
“There are forms, some of which are on chariots. We see weapons of a warrior. There is the form of one chariot. Here we see a bull in the center whereas on the right and left there are two centaurs,” she said, presenting the scan to her audience in Cyprus. “There is a winged victory over a ship’s deck that appears clearly.”
She pointed to other winged shapes that appear in the scanning, such as sphinxes, winged forms on red sheets transfering something in what appears nearby to be a gathering of gods. “That is where the dead person is being transfered, to a gathering of gods,” she said.
She said that a Π shape appears in the deceased’s chamber near the tomb’s cast. There is residue from the burial ceremony. Decorations from glass and bones and round golden decorations with strange patterns, such as brides. Peristeri also refered to bronze coins that were found in the excavation area. “We have bronze coins of Alexander III (336-323 BC) from Amphipolis that bear the monogram of Alexander. There were also coins of Cassander, king of Macedonia from 305-297 BC as well as bronze coins from the region of Amphipolis.
Archeologists have drawn conclusions regarding the Amphipolis Tomb
Archeologists have drawn conclusions regarding the Amphipolis Tomb. They state that it was commissioned and financed by Alexander the Great in honor of his beloved friend Hephaestion. It was designed by architect Dinokrates or Stesikrates and was constructed at the end of the 4th century BC by Antigonus I Monophthalmus.
The results are based on new finds after decoding three inscriptions found recently around the area where the Lion of Amphipolis was found, a few kilometers south of the tomb.
The new findings were presented at an event at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, titled “Searching Kasta Hill in Amphipolis 2012-2014″. This was the first open event in which the Amphipolis lead archeologist Katerina Peristeri spoke.
“The secret of the construction of the Amphipolis monument lies on the top of the monument where a wooden pole was placed to support the Lion,” said Michalis Lefantzis, the architect responsible for the excavation.
The complex inscriptions formed the name “Hephaestion”, meaning “I Antigonus received construction material for the erection of a monument in honor of Hephaestion…”
Peristeri presented the finds so far and said that she has not shifted from her initial view that the memorial was constructed at the end of the 4th century BC.
Despite the fact that the amphitheatre of the university ceremony hall was packed however only a few archaeologists and university professors attended the event. Leaflets were flung at the entrance of the cermemony hall stating: “The Amphipolis carcass stinks of nationalism!” The leaflets were signed by the so-called “autonomous historian-archaeologist group of Thessaloniki University.”
Researchers: Amphipolis monument dedicated to Hephaestion
The top researchers at the excavation at the Kasta Tumulus site in northern Greece, better known as Amphipolis, on Wednesday pointed directly to a massive monument commissioned by Alexander the Great for Hephaestion, one of his closest associates and a childhood friend.
Moreover, both the chief architect of the site, Mihalis Lefantzis, and lead archaeologist Katerina Peristeri said the monument was designed and supervised by the most renowned architect of the era, Dinokratis.
Wednesday’s briefing was held at the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, focusing on the course of excavations and the discovered artifacts.
Both Lefantzis and Peristeri emphasized that evidence is overwhelming that the structure is a stunning example of the early Hellenistic period.
Archaeologists and researchers discovered not one, but five skeletons buried in the vast Amphipolis tomb in northern Greece, the Culture ministry announced on Monday.
Initial analysis on the bone fragments showed the monument on Kasta Hill was probably a family tomb and included the remains of a 60-year-old woman, two men of about 35-45 years of age, a baby and a man who has been burned.
Further DNA tests will offer more information on the skeletons and will confirm or refute archaeologists’ speculation that this is indeed a family tomb, officials said.
Determining the identity of the burned man will be tougher, but archaeologists believe he may have been the first person to be buried, as cremation stopped after the 2nd-3rd centruries AD.
Katerina Peristeri who led the excavation process at Amphipolis Tomb and head of the Antiquities Ephorate in Serres, northern Greece spoke about the excavation. Meanwhile, ministry officials noted that this will be the final press conference regarding the excavation, as archaeologists are now ready to begin their research.
Peristeri made special reference to the time that her team found the Caryatids, expressing her emotions. She noted that according to her assessment when the tomb chamber that hosted the Caryatids filled with sand, one of the beams fell, thus destroying the face of the magnificent statue.
“We came here in order to take you on a journey to Amphipolis,” said Peristeri. “In 2012 a small team of archaeologists set off to solve the hill’s mystery. The hill had been left untouched for many years, because no one believed that there was something there,” she added. This summer, Peristeri’s team uncovered the entrance of the tomb and that is when it all began. According to the team that worked on the excavation process, the tomb dates back to the last quarter of the 4th century BC.
Furthermore, it was revealed that during excavations archaeologists found several 2nd century coins from the era of Alexander the Great, as well as pottery items, a fact that had not been announced so far. When she was asked to provide details on the coins, Peristeri said that the coins were being processed.
Tension broke out in the Ministry of Culture amphitheater, at the end of the presentation, when journalists complained that Peristeri had not shown any pictures of the skeleton that was found in the tomb. The archaeologists showed them a picture of the remains that they found explaining that the protection of the skeleton is more important than a great picture.
During his speech, Michael Lefantzis said that the engraved Greek letters “E” and “A” that were found outside the tomb are typical of that specific era. He also stressed that the letters are not name initials, they are related to the construction work.
Furthermore, Lefantzis noted that several marble pieces had been removed from the area outside the tomb, causing great destruction. Most of the marble pieces were used as dams for Struma river ( kerkini lake) and other construction work.
Parts from bones found in the Tomb of AMFIPOLIS
The new discovery of a grave made of limestone allegedly containing a wooden coffin with an integral human skeleton inside the Kasta Hill tomb in Amphipolis, brings archaeologists closer to solving the mystery of the person buried in the monument.
The grave was found 1.60 meters beneath the third chamber floor. The outer dimensions are 3.23 meters by 1.56 meters and inside the grave there is a hollow part 0.54 meters wide and 2.35 meters long. It is estimated that the height of the grave was 1.80 meters. Also, the total height from bottom to ceiling is 8.90 meters.
Archaeologists have informed journalists that inside the grave there was a wooden coffin containing a whole human skeleton. The implication of the coffin derives from the fact that inside the grave there were about 20 iron and copper nails and several coffin decorations made of bone and glass.
Inside the grave, the human skeleton found was almost intact. The skeleton will be transferred to a laboratory for a DNA test to determine the sex and age of the dead
According to the Ministry of Culture, the Kasta hill burial monument is the biggest ever built in Macedonia, made of the largest quantity of marble ever used. It is an extremely expensive public work, impossible to have been funded by a civilian.
It is certain that the person buried inside the tomb was considered a hero at the time. He or she was a prominent member of Macedonian society of the time. This is the only explanation considering the tremendous cost of the monument.
According to officials, Minister of Culture Kostas Tasoulas will give a press conference on November 22 at the Amphipolis Museum to talk about the findings and the next stage of works at the Kast hill monument.
3D VIDEO FROM AMPHIPOLIS TOMB
Archaeologists doing excavation work at the Amphipolis tomb in northern Greece have unearthed a second marble door.
The 2-metre-tall door weighs about 1.5 tonne and was found in good condition
The sphinxes will be fully restored
A relevant draft, elaborated from entrance
Greek authorities released more photos from the site, showing parts of the Sphinxes’ wings, while the sections permit full recovery of the impressive “guarding” the Ancient Greek tomb’s entrance. A relevant draft, elaborated by the associating architect, Michalis Lefantzis, was also presented today for the first time.
Amphipolis Sphinx RECONSTRUCTION
photo reconstruction by Dimitris Gotsis.
Missing Amphipolis Sphinx Head Discovered
Another amazing discovery has surfaced in Amphipolis Greece. The missing head of the Sphinx “guarding” the tomb’s entrance was finally discovered inside the third chamber.
The Sphinx’s head is intact, with minimal breakage on the nose. It has a height of 0.60m and it is assigned to the body of the eastern Sphinx. Made of marble, the head has signs of red color on its curly hair (falling onto its left shoulder) that is tied with a white stripe. It carries a pole and archaeologists characterize it as a sculpture of exceptional art. The head was found in a depth of 15cm inside a marble threshold. In addition, fragments of the Sphinx’s wings were discovered in the same chamber.
In a press release, the Greek Culture Ministry underlined that the excavation is in full progress, having reached the entire surface of the third chamber (4.5m x 6m) in a depth of 5.20m from the tomb’s top. In the coming days, archaeologists have scheduled the removal of fallen limestones from the third tomb chamber’s interior and parts of a newly uncovered gate will be revealed.
The Greek ministry of culture released today a set of pictures of the newly-excavated Amphipolis tomb mosaic. The mosaic is now fully uncovered, exposing a figure of a woman whom archaeologists have identified as Persephone.
In a series of impressive pictures released by the ministry, the female figure is shown with fiery red hair, cloaked in a white robe fastened together with a red ribbon. She raises her left hand and wears a bracelet. Archaeologists are now certain that the mosaic, 4.5 by 3 meters, depicts the abduction of Persephone by Pluto
According to the Greek Ministry of Culture, the beautiful mosaic was discovered in the second chamber of the tomb, the site of the Caryatids‘ discovery. The colorful floor was laid with white, black, grey, blue, red and yellow pebbles and depicts a chariot in motion. Hermes, the messenger of the gods, is pictured in front of the chariot.
The mosaic showcases the artist’s ability to portray the figures, horses and colors in exquisite detail.
According to a Culture Ministry announcement, Hermes is depicted here as the conductor of souls to the afterlife.
The stunning artwork, which has yet to be fully uncovered, spans the entire floor of the second chamber. It currently measures 4.5 meters in width and 3 meters in length. The central scene is surrounded by a decorative frame, 0.60 meters in width, featuring a double meander, squares and a wave-curl design.
According to archaeologists, a section of the mosaic floor has been destroyed. The Amphipolis team was able to recover the disturbed pebbles during the excavation process, however, and plans on being able to eventually piece the mosaic back together.
Amphipolis tomb 3d presentation
NEW PHOTOS FROM AMPHIPOLIS TOMB
The impressive tomb monument includes a depending mainly impressive tomb?
It is very possible that archaeologists have already picture of the the main tomb.
In the picture above we see the Tomb Castes and the point at which it is detected entering the burial monument. It is the white structure shown, because the shield entry placed for protection from the weather, which shows the time of the excavation, which is indicated by the red line.
For reasons of safety and sealing of the tomb, most likely to the main tomb is located at a lower level than the level of the runway has already revealed the excavation, which will lead to a stairwell, about the same as what is found at the entrance of the Sphinxes.
The main points to observe are two, one is on the course of the excavation, while the other is deviation from the path of the excavation towards the the inside of the tomb
So if the tomb is as impressive as it looks, then the main tomb should be accordingly impressive